These questions were answered by more than 50 individual scientists and science writers with expertise in addiction. To get as many answered as possible, responses were written quickly based on the personal background and knowledge of each expert. Please note that there was not a secondary review or proofreading of each fact, and if readers have questions or comments about any response, they can ask further questions.

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'Bath salts' have just been banned for a year in the United States. What can these chemicals do to the human body and brain?

-shannonl, Ohio

Good question.Unfortunately people are ingesting bath salts searching for a high, but many are finding serious consequences! Bath salts contain chemicals similar to ectascy, amphetamine and cocaine, which are associated with bad side effects like dangerously elevated blood pressure and heart rates, there have been reports of people becoming so agitated that their muscles started to break down, releasing chemicals that led to kidney failure. So, while it seems like bath salts woudn't pose any harm, used in the wrong way, it can be seriously dangerous stuff!

-David Shurtleff

1. What is the percentage of people who overdose on drugs per month? 2. Can prescription drugs cause hallucinations? 3. What percentage of teens use prescription drugs?

-koster, Iowa

Over a thousand people die each month in the US from prescrition pain killer overdoses. Halucinations are rare from prescription opioids. NIDA puts out a publication that answers a lot of questions about teen drug use. Check it out! http://monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/mtf-overview2010.pdf

-Dave Thomas

a good place to begin is the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Web site, www.samhsa.gov

-substance abuse prevention and treatment,

Web site, www.samhsa.gov.

-Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s

a lot of people need mental help right?

-cnunez, Texas

hi cnunez: It's true: mental disorders are pretty common, and over their lifetime, many people struggle with these problems and need help. In fact, mental illnesses are not as rare of some people think. About 20% of youth will have at least one type of mental illness in their lifetime. But the good news is that we have good treatments for the mental health problems that affect children, teens, and adults. Depending on the person and the problem, these treatments can include specific talk therapies (psychotherapies), medications, or a combination of treatments. So when someone is struggling, it's important for them to talk to a professional as early as possible to get help. Mental illnesses are real and can be treated. They are not often something a person can just snap out of. Some people do not get help because they are embarrassed or afraid to. However, getting help for mental issues is really no different than seeking help for a medical condition like diabetes. If you or someone you know needs help go to http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/getting-help-locate-services/index.shtml for information on who to talk to and how to find help in your area. Also see: http://www.whatadifference.samhsa.gov/support.asp?nav=nav02_0&content=2_0_support

-Joel Sherrill

A question was asked 'Is

-ImNotAPanda, Pennsylvania

Yes, for teenagers, even moderate consumption of alcohol appears to be harmful. Research shows that having alcohol during the teen years increases the odds of becoming an alcoholic at some point in life. This happens even if you drink at home with your parents. In fact, research in Europe, the US and Australia indicates that teens who are allowed to drink at home even while being supervised by parents are more likely to binge drink (drink enough over about 2 hours to get very drunk) outside of the home. It isn't clear how much alcohol is needed to directly damage the brain during the teen years, but it is probably more than the amount of alcohol considered to be moderate for adults (no more than 1 drink per day for women or 2 for men). Even if the brain is spared from being damaged by moderate consumption during the teen years, the risk of becoming an alcoholic is increased significantly

-Aaron White

A question was asked 'Is Alcohol Bad For You.' and your responce didnt fully explain everything. Does alcohol bad for you even in moderation?

-ImNotAPanda, Pennsylvania

Yes, for teenagers, even moderate consumption of alcohol appears to be harmful. Research shows that having alcohol during the teen years increases the odds of becoming an alcoholic at some point in life. This happens even if you drink at home with your parents. In fact, research in Europe, the US and Australia indicates that teens who are allowed to drink at home even while being supervised by parents are more likely to binge drink (drink enough over about 2 hours to get very drunk) outside of the home. It isn't clear how much alcohol is needed to directly damage the brain during the teen years, but it is probably more than the amount of alcohol considered to be moderate for adults (no more than 1 drink per day for women or 2 for men). Even if the brain is spared from being damaged by moderate consumption during the teen years, the risk of becoming an alcoholic is increased significantly.

-Aaron White

About how long does it take to quit and recover from using drugs?

-cthompson, Pennsylvania

It depends on what they are addicted to. If marijuana users quit, it's often in their twenties after starting in their teens (so 10+ years to get around to quitting). Older age and marriage are predictive of quitting. But plenty of people remain addicted or frequent users of marijuana into older adulthood. Very few seek formal treatment. Stimulant and heroin users quit later and often heroin users remain on methadone (a treatment medication) or go back to using heroin. It can be a lifelong battle. Technically, it takes only one day to quit cold turkey, but fixing all the damage to relationships, employment history, and educational history can take a very long time and in some cases be insurmountable. Some people remain in AA (Alcoholics Anonymous) or NA (Narcotics Anonymous) type groups their entire lives or cycle through patterns of recovery and relapse. Most people who quit drugs do it without formal treatment but these people usually have less severe and shorter use histories.

-Jim Bjork

about how many childeren use alchol or drugs?????

-harry.h, Texas

The Monitoring the Future Study is a survey conducted by the University of Michigan every year where they ask 8th, 10th, and 12th graders about their drug use behavior and attitudes. In 2010, around 20% of 8th graders, 32% of 10th graders, and 39% of high school seniors reported they had used some type of drug in the past year (includes any use of marijuana, inhalants, LSD, other hallucinogens, crack, other cocaine, heroin, narcotics other than heroin, amphetamines, sedatives (barbiturates), or tranquilizers not under a doctor’s orders). In the same study 29% of 8th graders, 52% of 10th graders, and 65% of high school seniors reported having used alcohol at some point in the past year and about 12% of 8th, 30% of 10th, and 44% of 12th graders reported they had been drunk in the past year.

-Marsha Lopez

About how many years does it take for you to stop taking a drug?

-jvu, Texas

Hi, jvu. Many people struggle with drug addiction, but with proper treatment, quitting is an achievable goal. How long it takes will depend on a number of factors, including what drugs someone is taking, how much they're taking, and for how long. See http://www.drugabuse.gov/scienceofaddiction/index.html for more info.

-Dave White

after you snort

-ZaCh!, Ohio

Hey ZaCH! Not only may you experience loss of smell, but also a chronically runny nose, nosebleeds, hoarseness, and problems swallowing. Also, chronic users of cocaine can become malnourished due to the drug's ability to decrease appetite. But I wouldn't ingest cocaine -- period. It could cause severe bowel gangrene due to a reduction in the flow of blood to the intestines. That's nasty! If someone were to inject it, they could experience severe allergic reactions, increased risk for contracting HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne diseases. For more information on cocaine, see:
www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/Cocaine.html

-Joni Rutter

after you snort cocaine can you smell anymore?

-ZaCh!, Ohio

Hey ZaCH! Not only may you experience loss of smell, but also a chronically runny nose, nosebleeds, hoarseness, and problems swallowing. Also, chronic users of cocaine can become malnourished due to the drug's ability to decrease appetite. But I wouldn't ingest cocaine -- period. It could cause severe bowel gangrene due to a reduction in the flow of blood to the intestines. That's nasty! If someone were to inject it, they could experience severe allergic reactions, increased risk for contracting HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne diseases. For more information on cocaine, see: www.drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/Cocaine.html.

-Joni Rutter

agood placeto beginis the

-substance abuse prevention and treatment,

Web site, www.samhsa.gov

-Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s

Aisha kenmore do the drug laws differ from state to state and if so, why?

-pdoug, Virginia

Hello - and thanks for your question. I Don't know that I can really answer the question about 'why' the laws regarding illicit drugs differ from state to state. What I do know is that the legal consequences for posession of drugs differs by type of drug, amount, and where you are when you get caught. Here are the Federal penalities for cocaine and for marijuana https://www.dea.gov/druginfo/factsheets.shtml. My advice - don't possess or use drugs and then you don't need to worry about legalities.

-Redonna Chandler

Alcohol kills more people than any other drug...why is it legal?

-DjChop, Pennsylvania

That's a complicated question. In the early 20th century, alcohol was banned all together. While that strategy (called 'Prohibition') did save some lives, it wasn't considered a success in general and alcohol was made legal again. In addition, many people use alcohol responsibly and enjoy it for a wide range of purposes, including celebrations and religious ceremonies. The government can regulate - but not prevent - people from using alcohol in those ways. The exception is the legal drinking age of 21. Making it illegal for people under 21 to drink alcohol has proven to be important for reducing alcohol-related deaths, including from traffic crashes, in young people.

-Aaron White

Are teens today having more problems with drug addictions than in the past?

-larlhamc, Ohio

I would say that the answer to this question is, 'Yes.' While people may state that we have better ways to collect information about use (about everything!) and better means of publicizing that information, it is also true that availability of different prescription drugs (used for non-medical purposes), and illicit substances has increased; and the types of 'drugs' abused has increased.

-Michelle Leff

Are there any countries that allow weed? And why?

-Que?, New York

Hello Skaneateles High School! Thanks for the thoughtful question....The legality of cannabis (aka, weed) has been the subject of debate for many decades and in different societies. Different societies decide to control drugs through varied ways (how is supplied/cultivated, how it can be possessed or not, how it can be sold, etc.). Some countries that have decided to decriminalize cannabis--an example is the Netherlands. However, in the majority of countries cannabis remains illegal. For more information on marijuanahere is a link to our teen web pages: https://teens.drugabuse.gov/facts/facts_mj1.php

-Bethany Deeds

Are there any physical or mental effects that

-briannaf, Pennsylvania

There sure are! Some people die after a single use of inhalants, because the effects are so rapid and there is no antidote other than oxygen. The lungs rapidly absorb inhaled chemicals into the bloodstream, quickly spreading them throughout the body, including the brain. Within minutes of inhalation, users can feel a 'buzz' or 'high.' The effects are similar to those produced by
alcoholand may include slurred speech, lack of coordination, euphoria, and dizziness. Inhalant users may also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations, and delusions. The high usually lasts only a few minutes. But with repeated inhalations, many users feel less inhibited and less in control. Some may feel drowsy for several hours and experience a lingering headache. The most important effects occur in your brain. Inhalants often contain more than one chemical. Some chemicals leave the body quickly, but others can remain for a long time, because they stick to fatty tissues in the brain and central nervous system. One of these fatty tissues is myelin, a protective cover that surrounds many of the body's nerve fibers (axons). Myelin helps nerve fibers carry their electric messages to and from the brain. Damage to myelin can slow down communication between nerve fibers. Long-term inhalant use can break down myelin. When this happens, nerve cells are not able to transmit messages as efficiently, which can result in muscle spasms and tremors or even permanent difficulty with basic actions like walking, bending, and talking. These effects are similar to what happens to patients with multiple sclerosis--a disease that also affects myelin. Check out our teen site at
https://teens.drugabuse.gov/facts/facts_inhale1.phpfor more information

-Nancy Pilotte

Are there any physical or mental effects that inhalants have on your body? And if so, what are they?

-briannaf, Pennsylvania

There sure are! Some people die after a single use of inhalants, because the effects are so rapid and there is no antidote other than oxygen. The lungs rapidly absorb inhaled chemicals into the bloodstream, quickly spreading them throughout the body, including the brain. Within minutes of inhalation, users can feel a 'buzz' or 'high.' The effects are similar to those produced by alcohol and may include slurred speech, lack of coordination, euphoria, and dizziness. Inhalant users may also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations, and delusions. The high usually lasts only a few minutes. But with repeated inhalations, many users feel less inhibited and less in control. Some may feel drowsy for several hours and experience a lingering headache. The most important effects occur in your brain. Inhalants often contain more than one chemical. Some chemicals leave the body quickly, but others can remain for a long time, because they stick to fatty tissues in the brain and central nervous system. One of these fatty tissues is myelin, a protective cover that surrounds many of the body's nerve fibers (axons). Myelin helps nerve fibers carry their electric messages to and from the brain. Damage to myelin can slow down communication between nerve fibers. Long-term inhalant use can break down myelin. When this happens, nerve cells are not able to transmit messages as efficiently, which can result in muscle spasms and tremors or even permanent difficulty with basic actions like walking, bending, and talking. These effects are similar to what happens to patients with multiple sclerosis--a disease that also affects myelin. Check out our teen site at https://teens.drugabuse.gov/facts/facts_inhale1.php for more information.

-Nancy Pilotte

Are there any specific social groups associated with certain drugs?

-jeffreyk, Pennsylvania

Hi, jeffreyk, that's a complicated question to answer. If by social groups you mean certain ethnic or gender groups you can find out all sorts of information from the University of Michigan's annual Monitoring the Future Study (look at Appendix D), which has specific drug information for 8th, 10th, and 12th graders broken down by gender, race/ethnicity, and parental education among others. If you mean social groups like boy scouts or kickball leagues, sorry I can't help you.

-Marsha Lopez

are there natural highs?

-adison_s, Pennsylvania

Absolutely, and that's why it is so silly to seek artifical ones that can and do harm your brain and overall health.The active ingredient in any basic receipe for a natural high is this (are you ready?): find out what you are really passionate about (whatever it is, except drugs, of course), nurture that passion and then follow it to wherever it takes you. It works every time, and you will never regret it.

-Ruben Baler

are there ways to stop using drugs or quit?

-bobbymcwire, California

Yes, if you know someone who is addicted to drugs, you should try to convince him or her to get professional help. There are many successful treatments and ways that can help people quit using drugs. Some people just decide to quit 'cold turkey' but this can be very difficult for some. We know that drug treatment does work and helps many people with this difficult problem.For more information, and for help, see:http://www.findtreatment.samhsa.gov/ or 1-800-662-HELP, where you can find private and confidential help 24/7.

-Joe Frascella

Are they any negative effects of drinking moderately?

-avincent, Kentucky

For adults, one (for females) or up to two (for males) servings of alcohol can help decrease the chances of developing heart disease. However, any more than that increases the risk of developing a host of problems, including liver and pancreas diseases, weakened immune system, and certain kinds of cancers.There are no known benefits of alcohol for teenagers, only negative effects. Starting to drink under the age of 21 is associated with an increased risk of developing alcoholism, getting injured in various ways and developing chronic diseases later in life.For more information on how alcohol can affect your health, check out: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Hangovers/beyondHangovers.htm

-Aaron White

are you getting tired of answering questions?

-UMaD BrO?, Minnesota

It's both tiring and invigorating! I've been here since 8 AM and it is now 5:58!! Thanks for asking your questions--it was a lot of fun.

-Joni Rutter

Almost half of my family smokes,is it hereditary?

-Saparicio, Texas

yes

-Nora Volkow

Approximately how much

-DjChop, Pennsylvania

That can be hard to predict exactly. In general, a blood alcohol level above 0.30% is considered potentially fatal. For a 140 lb female, that would be about 10 drinks in 2 hours, and much less alcohol for someone lighter. Here are some of the factors that influence how fast people get drunk: How much alcohol they drink and how fast they drink it Whether there is food in the stomach to slow how quickly alcohol gets into the body How much they weigh Whether they are male or female -- females tend to be affected more by alcohol than males Getting drunk faster also makes drinking more dangerous. Drinking quickly can turn off the brain's memory centers and cause 'blackouts', or an inability to remember what you did while drinking. Getting drunk faster can make it more likely that the vital centers in the brain will be shut off.For more information on safe drinking limits for adults, and how much alcohol is contained in single drink, please check out:
http://rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/

-Aaron White

Approximately how much alcohol would it take for an individual of average BMI to fataly overdose?

-DjChop, Pennsylvania

That can be hard to predict exactly. In general, a blood alcohol level above 0.30% is considered potentially fatal. For a 140 lb female, that would be about 10 drinks in 2 hours, and much less alcohol for someone lighter. Here are some of the factors that influence how fast people get drunk: How much alcohol they drink and how fast they drink it Whether there is food in the stomach to slow how quickly alcohol gets into the body How much they weigh Whether they are male or female -- females tend to be affected more by alcohol than males Getting drunk faster also makes drinking more dangerous. Drinking quickly can turn off the brain's memory centers and cause 'blackouts', or an inability to remember what you did while drinking. Getting drunk faster can make it more likely that the vital centers in the brain will be shut off.For more information on safe drinking limits for adults, and how much alcohol is contained in single drink, please check out: http://rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/

-Aaron White

are all drugs addictive

-theos sethj, Pennsylvania

Most drugs of abuse like cocaine, alcohol, tobacco, amphetamine can be addictive because they directly or indirectly target the brain's reward system by flooding the brain with dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that regulate movement, emotion, motivation, feelings of pleasure and addiction. When a person takes drugs, brain circuits that use dopamine are over stimulated (over stimulated in fact) and is what a person feels is the 'rush' associated with taking drugs. This 'rush' is what makes people repeat the behavior (drug use) and over time, this abnormal stimulation of the brain can lead to 're-wiring' the brain in a way that leads to addiction-not good! You can check out NIDA’s Web site to learn more at:http://www.drugabuse.gov/

-David Shurtleff

are all drugs additive

-natalie14, Ohio

Yes, they all are. The timing changes from person to person, but all of them are equally dangerous and can lead to addiction. Read our colorful Science of Addiction booklet to learn more: http://www.drugabuse.gov/ScienceofAddiction/

-Anto Bonci

Are all drugs babd for you bro?

-ims306, Louisiana

Drugs that are prescribed to you by your doctor and taken as instructed are generally safe and helpful. The same drugs taken without a doctor's prescription, or differently from the way they were prescribed, can be dangerous. Illegal drugs are all dangerous--that's the main reason why they're illegal.

-Dave White

are all drugs sold on the streets clean

-etinoco, Illinois

It is always a big gamble to buy drugs on the street. You really cannot be sure what you are getting. Very often they are not what sellers say they are or are contaminated with other chemicals. Dosage is also an unkown: for example, there are many reports of people getting sick or dying from heroin doses that were stronger than they could tolerate.

-Dave Thomas

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