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Drugs & Health Blog

Eight Questions From Teens About Drugs and Alcohol

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Teens get answers from experts to their questions about drugs and alcohol during NDAFW Chat Day 2016.

The NIDA Blog Team

How much do you really know about why people become addicted to drugs, whether marijuana can be medicine, and what causes a hangover?

Every January, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) hosts a chat day for National Drug and Alcohol Facts WeekSM (NDAFW). This year, NIDA scientists answered more than 1,600 questions from teens and others about drug and alcohol use. Here are a few of our favorites from this year’s questions; a link to the full chat transcript is on our NDAFW page.

1. Why do some people become addicted, while others don’t?

Great question, and a hard one. We don’t fully understand yet why this is so. We know that genes play a part, because an inclination for addiction can run in families, and because different strains of mice, rats, and other animals differ in how readily they develop addiction-like behaviors after they’re exposed to drugs.

We also know that a person’s environment plays a part in addiction. For example, what are the factors that encourage someone who has tried a drug to keep on taking it to the point where they can’t stop? Many scientists are trying to untangle the answers so that we can find better ways to prevent and treat addiction. 

See these videos on how anyone can become addicted, and why drugs are so hard to quit.

Read more on what increases the risk of having a drug problem.

2. What can cause a hangover?

There are several reasons why people experience hangovers from drinking. One component is dehydration. Alcohol causes the body to get rid of too much fluid, and the dehydration that results can cause headaches, nausea, thirst, and other symptoms of hangovers.

While some people think that alcohol helps a person sleep, it actually disrupts sleep, and that can contribute to the grogginess that accompanies hangovers. 

3. What properties in drugs make them addicting?

Different drugs act on the brain in different ways, but they all cause release of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain’s reward area, which is what causes the pleasurable sensation (the high). Once a person uses a drug repeatedly, their brain starts to adjust to these surges of dopamine; the brain cells (neurons) make fewer dopamine receptors, or they simply produce less dopamine.

The result is a lower amount of “dopamine signaling” in the reward area—it’s like “turning down the volume” on the reward signal. Then the person may start to find natural “rewards”—like food, relationships, or sex—less pleasurable; that’s one of the signs of addiction

Also, reduced dopamine signaling in the brain’s prefrontal cortex, which governs our ability to inhibit (slow down or stop) our impulses, makes it harder to resist the urge to take drugs even if a person would like to quit. Learn more about how drugs affect your brain and body.

Learn the difference between drug tolerance, dependence, and addiction.

4. Does marijuana use lead to the use of other drugs?

The “gateway drug” concept—where using one drug leads a person to use other drugs— generates a lot of controversy. Researchers haven’t found a definite answer yet, but as of today the research does suggest that, while most people who smoke marijuana do not go on to use other drugs, most teens who do use other illegal drugs try marijuana first.

For example, the risk of using cocaine is much greater for those who have tried marijuana than for those who have never tried it. However, this risk is also greater for people who have used alcohol and tobacco.

Animal studies suggest that because the teen brain is still developing, using marijuana, alcohol, or tobacco in your teen years (or earlier) may alter your brain’s reward system (see the answer to #3 above), and that may put teens at higher risk of using other drugs. In addition, using marijuana puts children and teens in contact with people who use and sell other drugs, increasing the risk of additional drug use.

5. Is medical marijuana good for you?

The marijuana plant has not been approved by the FDA for the treatment of any medical condition. A pill form of THC (the main chemical in marijuana that affects the brain) is already available for certain conditions, such as nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy and weight loss in patients with AIDS.

Early research suggests that some of the active ingredients in marijuana, like THC and cannabidiol (CBD), might be able to help treat conditions and diseases like epilepsy, cancer, or addiction. Scientists are studying THC and CBD to try to develop new medications. However, smoked marijuana is unlikely to be an ideal medication because of its negative health effects, including the risk of addiction and the damage that smoking can do to your lungs.

Learn about the connection between marijuana and vaping.

6. Can drugs affect animals?

Yes. Chemicals can have different effects in different animals—for instance, chocolate is delicious to humans and poisonous to dogs—so even small amounts of a drug could be very harmful for your pet. Alcohol can cause a dog to suffer dangerous drops in blood pressure, blood sugar, and body temperature, to have seizures, and to stop breathing.

In dogs and cats poisoned by marijuana, signs may be seen within 3 hours, such as a lack of energy, low heart rate, low blood pressure, respiratory depression, hyperactivity, seizures, vomiting, and coma. Also, your pet wouldn’t understand that it had been given a drug, and the sensations that might feel like a “high” to a human would be a very scary experience for an animal.

7. How can I help someone if they are on drugs?

One of the best things you can do for a friend with a serious drug problem is let them know you are there to support them. Tell them you’re concerned about their drug use and encourage them to seek help from a trusted adult; maybe a teacher, coach, parent, or counselor can help. 

You can also help by being a strong positive influence; help them get involved in non-drug-using activities like joining a club, playing music, or playing a sport. However, if your friend is becoming a negative influence in your life, you might have to step away from the friendship for a while.

If you feel your friend is a danger to himself or herself, or to others, it is important to tell a trusted adult right away; it could save your friend’s life. See NIDA’s “Step by Step Guide” for teens and young adults.

Learn about helping a friend who’s using drugs.

8. Are video games more addictive than drugs?

No, they aren’t more addictive—for example, they don’t cause painful physical withdrawal when you stop. Technically, video games wouldn’t be considered addictive. But they do act on some of the same systems in the brain as addictive drugs. For instance, they produce bursts of dopamine (described in answer #3 above), and some people think that playing video games a lot might cause problems similar to drug use, such as being unable to get satisfaction from other things in life. 

Learn why addiction is a disease.

Comments posted to the Drugs & Health Blog are from the general public and may contain inaccurate information. They do not represent the views of NIDA or any other federal government entity.


Omg heroin is my new favorite
dont do drugs
i am with you on that because drugs are bad and i think drugs should not be in countries or in the state.
dont do drug your right its better to hang out with friends and family than drugs
Same omg
Really do you know that your putting your life at risk. That's not gud
thats bad for you
Pretty good questions ;)
If smoke from marijuana is harmful then LEGALIZE IT ALREADY so people can get edibles!
Rich- it's not just the smoke. THC and the other psychotropic compounds in marijuana affect the brain in various ways, targeting centers relating to memory and attention. These chemicals have been shown to negatively impact cognitive functioning.
officer torez
drugs a bad mmmkay, stay in school
what does heroin do to you when you smoke it or sniff it

Hi Rodriguez, to learn more about heroin's effects, check out this Drug Facts page:

people should take these questions more seriously
some of these comments are very critical
how about lets not do drugs
Good Answer
why do pepole do drugs in the first place

Most drugs affect the brain's reward system, causing people to feel intense excitement or happiness -- a "high." You can learn more about how drugs affect the brain here:

some videos on chemical in marijuana??

You can learn more about marijuana here:

why is marijuana considered a schedule one drug if over half the states have legalized it for medical purposes?
A federal agency, the Drug Enforcement Administration, handles drug scheduling, not the states. You can read more about drug scheduling on the DEA's website:
Ok.. got a few information...
this is lame the post on weed is false :/ lame mf site LEGALIZE IT.
Using drugs to trigger surges of dopamine in the brain (pleasure center) is the progression of the brain becomin chemically imbalanced, thus breaking the brain!
Boosting the pleasure centers of the brain via drug use is the progression of breaking the brain, rendering it chemically imbalanced.
I'm high lol
thank you for other info..
thank u for more info :))))))
Love these biased opinions...Oh I meant facts. Stop reefer madness. This isn't the fifties anymore. Good grief.
When a person who uses heroin, why does the charges say they are guilty of cocaine possession ?

If the charges say “cocaine possession,” chances are the police also found cocaine in the person's pockets or somewhere else. Sometimes people use both heroin and cocaine; that's an extremely dangerous combination.

I really need to know how youth in question are affected by drugs

Good question! Although taking drugs at any age can lead to addiction, research shows that the earlier a person begins to use drugs, the more likely they are to progress to more serious use. This may reflect the harmful effect that drugs can have on the developing brain. It also may be the result of early biological and social factors, such as genetics, mental illness, unstable family relationships, and exposure to physical or sexual abuse. Still, the fact remains that early use is a strong indicator of problems ahead—among them, substance abuse and addiction. (

To learn how each drug affects the brain and body, go to

Although there is a huge push to legalize marijuana, it can cause major effects on the developing brain. This is a great article describing what questions teens are asking and how to address them with facts.
I am doing a drug unit in my school so I am glad to have all these "facts" and info to use
Please write about families testimonies about their experiences with drug addiction
Is it possible for us to make something that might stop addiction? If it is possible it would save many people’s live and help some gain their old life back. Also, does our reward system recover from addiction or will it recover but not fully like a scar.

Drug use can eventually lead to dramatic changes in neurons and brain circuits. These changes can still be present even after the person has stopped taking drugs. This is more likely to happen when a drug is taken over and over. To find out more about how drugs affect the brain, body, and behavior, check out our Drug Facts page on this topic:

Why do people do drugs when they know it will only hurt them? It makes no sense to me. Also, there are better ways to spend your money than on drugs. Why would you intentionally spend money on something that could kill you, like heroin?

Drug use changes the brain, and when people become addicted to drugs, they don’t always make logical or rational decisions. To find out more about how drugs affect the brain, body, and behavior, check out our Drug Facts page on this topic:

When will scientist be able to fully be able to understand why people sometimes get addicted to drugs and sometimes not. How long will dopamine last. Why do people think video games are as addicted as drugs


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